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Disease Profile

IRF6-Related disorders

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable



IRF6-related disorders include two different disorders caused by abnormalities in the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) geneVan der Woude syndrome (VWS) is at the mild end of the spectrum and popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) is at the severe end of the spectrum. The symptoms of IRF6-related disorders vary greatly from case to case. People with VWS can have lip pits alone, cleft lip or cleft palate alone, or a combination of these anomalies. People with PPS have a thick web of skin (pterygium) on the backs of both legs (popliteal), extending from the hip (ischial tuberosity) to the heel (calcaneus) or in other locations, as well as other problems.[1] A cone-shaped fold of skin on the nail of the big toe is a very distinctive finding in PPS.[1][2] Supportive/symptomatic treatment may include surgery, pediatric dentistry, orthodontia, speech therapy, feeding and hearing evaluation, physical therapy, and orthopedic care.[2]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In-Depth Information

  • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.


  1. IRF6-Related Disorders. National Organization of Rare Diseases (NORD). 2012; https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/irf6-related-disorders/.
  2. Schutte BC, Saal HM, Goudy S & Leslie E. IRF6-Related Disorders. GeneReviews. July 3, 2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1407/.