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Disease Profile

Ring chromosome 15

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

<1 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Chromosome 15 ring; Ring 15; R15


Chromosome Disorders; Congenital and Genetic Diseases


Ring chromosome 15 is a chromosome abnormality that affects growth, learning, and speech. People with ring chromosome 15 often have growth delays before and after birth, resulting in short stature; varying degrees of intellectual disability; low muscle tone (hypotonia); craniofacial malformations; and limb abnormalities. Other symptoms might include congenital heart defects, kidney problems, congenital dislocation of the hips, and cafe-au-lait spots. Ring chromosome 15 is caused by an abnormal chromosome known as a ring chromosome 15 or r(15). A ring chromosome is a circular structure that occurs when a chromosome breaks in two places and the broken ends fuse together. The features of ring chromosome 15 appear to result from the loss (deletion) of genetic material from the long (q) arm of chromosome 15. Ring chromosome 15 is usually caused by spontaneous (de novo) errors very early in embryonic development.[1][2] In rare cases, it is passed through families, either from a parent who also has a ring chromosome 15, or from a parent who has a balanced translocation.[1] Treatment for ring chromosome 15 is focused on addressing the symptoms present in each individual and may require a team of medical specialists.[1][2]


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

    • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.
    • Unique is a source of information and support to families and individuals affected by rare chromosome disorders. Click on the link to view information about ring chromosome 15.

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Ring chromosome 15. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


        1. Kulkarni S. Chromosome 15 Ring. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2009; https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/chromosome-15-ring/.
        2. Morava E. Ring 15. Unique. 2005; https://www.rarechromo.org/information/Chromosome%2015/Ring%2015%20FTNW.pdf.